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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the SDGs, provides an overarching framework to accelerate and expand efforts to respond to the underlying drivers and consequences of GBSS. Governments have already taken action in a number of ways, with varying degrees of success, and there are lessons that can be learnt. However, renewed and concerted efforts are now needed by governments and civil society, including efforts to address the deeply rooted gender discrimination against women and girls which lies at the heart of sex selection resulting in sex ratio imbalances. China’s Belt and Road Initiative provides a new cooperation platform to advance gender equality and women’s health and rights in countries along the Belt and Road Initiative for achieving SDG target 5.3 on elimination of all harmful practices.